Nguyen Dynasty - Last Royal Family in Vietnam with 13 Kings
If you are history buff and visiting to Vietnam. Hue city is definitely a Must-Visit in your list. It was served as the Last Royal Ancient Capital of 13 Kings of the Nguyen Dynasty (1802 - 1945) and here is the List of our 13 Emperors:
1. Emperor Gia Long: Nguyen Anh is the grandson of Lord Nguyen Phuc Khoat, the penultimate Lord Nguyen in Dang Trong. After the Nguyen family was overthrown by the Tay Son army in 1777, he fled and began a 25-year war with Tay Son to restore his throne.
Initially, Nguyen Anh suffered many great failures, had to appeal to the Siamese army and promised to cut the territory of the country for France so that the two countries would send troops to attack Tay Son. This army moved to Vietnam to attack Tay Son. Nguyen Anh and Le Chieu Thong were the only two kings in Vietnamese history who led the way for foreign troops to attack the country's territory . The foreign appeal to restore the throne of Lord Nguyen led him to be criticized later by historians
Gia Long ruled the country for 18 years from 1802 to 1820. He had 21 wives amd concubines with 13 princes and 18 princess.
2. Emperor Minh Mang: Minh Mang ruled the country for 20 years from 1820 to 1841. He had about 500 wives and concubines with 78 princes and 64 princess.
Minh Mang was born May 25, 1791 - January 20, 1841) or Minh Par, the second emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty of Dai Nam. He reigned from 1820 until his death and was worshiped as a temple of Nguyen Thanh To. Despite a limited number of erroneous policies, contemporary historians still regard Minh Mang as the most eminent king of the Nguyen Dynasty.
During 21 years of reign, Minh Mang proclaimed a series of internal reforms. He changed the name of Vietnam to Dai Nam, established a Cabinet and a Secret Service in Hue, abolished the position of the Governor of Bac Thanh and Gia Dinh Thanh, changed the town to a province, and consolidated the regime of travel in the mountains. The army was also built mightily. Minh Mang also sent officials to urge the reclamation in the northern and southern coasts. In addition, he was very interested in maintaining Confucian education, in 1822 he reopened the Association exams and Dinh exams in the capital to recruit talents. He strictly prohibited the spread of Christianity because he thought it was the evil religion that undermined the national tradition. Regarding foreign affairs, Minh Mang did not introduce any reform, he continued to maintain Gia Long's policy: to isolate and reject all exchanges with the West, to prohibit people from trading with foreign countries, making Dai Nam gradually lagging behind in not acquiring new scientific and technical achievements.
3. Emperor Thieu Tri: Thieu Tri, whose name was Nguyen Phuc Mien Tong, changed to Nguyen Phuc Tuyen when he ascended to the throne. He was the eldest son of King Minh Mang and Ta Thien Nhan Queen Ho Thi Hoa, born on May 11, Dinh Mao, or June 16, 1807, in Hue. Just 13 days after the birth of Mien Tong, Ta Thien Nhan and Empress Ho Thi Hoa were sworn in. Mien Tong was taken care of and nurtured by her mother, Thuan Thien Cao Thai.
Thieu Tri ruled the country for 7 years from 1841 to 1847. He had about 39 wives and concubines with 29 princes and 35 princess.
4. Emperor Tu Duc: Nguyen Phuc Hong Nham was born on August 25, Ky Suu year (September 22, 1829) in Hue, the second son of Thieu Tri and Pham Thi Hang (Mrs. Tu Du). When she was young, Hong Nham had another name: Nguyen Phuc Thi. In addition, according to the Nguyen Phuc royal tradition dating from the time of Vo Vuong Nguyen Phuc Khoat, the prince born to be easy to raise will be given the name Me, so in his childhood he was also known as Me Triu.
Because his brother, Nguyen Phuc Hong Bao, was an avid gambler, refusing to study, King Thieu Tri passed away to pass the throne to him. He was only 19 years old, but his education was wise. In October 1847, he was officially crowned Emperor in Thai Hoa Palace, naming himself Tu Duc, starting the following year in 1848. When Tu Duc came to power, the court ruled in Confucian style.
Tu Duc ruled the country for 36 years from 1847 to 1883. He had 103 wives and concubines but no children due to mumps disease.
5. Emperor Duc Duc: Duc Duc was born on February 23, 1852 in Hue. Sources say he was born on 4 January in the year of the Ox (February 11, 1853). He was the second son of Thoai Thai king Nguyen Phuc Hong Y (the fourth son of Thieu Tri king) and Mrs. Tran Thi Nga, self-proclaimed Ung Ai (historically not saved Thuy).
In 1869, when he was 17 years old, he was adopted by his biological father, King Tu Duc (because of mumps disease, so King Tu Duc had no children)  and gave his name Ung Ung Chan, and gave in Duc Duc street and entrusted Hoang Thi Phi Vu Thi Duyen to teach In 1883 he was made a Thuy Quoc Cong.
Duc Duc ruled the country for 3 days from 20th to 23rd Jul 1883. He had 8 wives and concubines with 11 princes and 8 princess.
6. Emperor Hiep Hoa: Hiep Hoa, whose real name is Nguyen Phuc Hong Dat, when he ascended to the throne, changed his name to Nguyen Phuc Thang, born in Hue, the 29th and the youngest son of King Thieu Tri; Doan Tan's mother was Doan Thi Doan (some books read Thuan). His original title was Lang Quoc Cong. According to the tradition of the Nguyen Phuc royal family from the worship of Vo Vuong Nguyen Phuc Khoat, the princes born to be easy to raise often named after the Me, so when childhood, King Hiep Hoa also called Me Men.
Hiep Hoa ruled the country for 4 months from 30th Jul to 29th Nov 1883. The King had 11 princes and 6 princess, only knowing that his second son, Ung Hiep, was heir to his elder brother, Phong Loc, the Duke and a queen named Ngoc Pha. His other two sons, Nguyen Phuc Ung Bac, practiced the style of Van Lang Huong Cong and Nguyen Phuc Ung Chuan. His grandson Nguyen Phuc Buu Trac (son of Ung Bac) worked to unify the products. Mr. Buu Trac's son, Nguyen Phuc Vinh Man, is the Head of the propaganda committee of the 125th delegation.
7. Emperor Kien Phuoc: Kien Phuc was born February 12, 1869 - July 31, 1884), whose real name was Nguyen Phuc Ung Dang, was the seventh emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty in Vietnamese history. He ascended to the throne on December 2, 1883, at the position of 8 months, he passed away, was worshiped the temple is Gian Tong. Under the reign of King Kien Phuc, on June 6, 1884, the Hue court signed with the French colonialists the Treaty of Giap Than (Patenôtre Peace), revising a number of things compared to the Treaty of Quy Mui but basically The version still recognizes the "protection" of France for the country of Vietnam.
King Kien Phuc was only king for 8 months, and became the most glorious monarch of the Nguyen Dynasty, when the King died just 15 years old. His death was closely related to Phi Phi Nguyen Van Thi Huong and Assistant Chief of Mission Nguyen Van Tuong.
8. Emperor Ham Nghi: Ham Nghi was born on August 3, 1871 - January 14, 1944, under the title De Xu, whose real name is Nguyen Phuc Ung Lich, the eighth emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty, the last feudal dynasty in Vietnamese history.
As the younger brother of King Kien Phuc, in 1884 Ham Nghi was taken to the throne by his chief assistants Nguyen Van Tuong and Ton That Thuyet at the age of 13. After the counterattack in Hue citadel failed in 1885, Ton That Thuyet brought him he went out and broadcasted Can Vuong against the French colonialists.
In his name, Ton That Thuyet launched the Can Vuong movement, calling for the prose and pro-government to help the king and the country. This movement lasted until 1888 when Ham Nghi was arrested. Later, he was taken to peace in Algiers (capital of Algeria) and died here in 1943 due to stomach cancer. Due to French pressure, the Nguyen Dynasty did not give him a temple.
9. Emperor Dong Khanh: Dong Khanh was born on February 19, 1864 - January 28, 1889), the fictitious names were Nguyen Phuc Ung Thi and Nguyen Phuc Ung Duong, ascended the throne to be named Nguyen Phuc Bien, the ninth emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty in history. Vietnam, from 1885 to 1889.
Dong Khanh was originally adopted by Emperor Tu Duc. In 1885, after the Hue court was defeated by the French army in the battle of Hue Citadel, Ham Nghi and Ton That Thuyet fled to Quang Tri. look under the French Patronage. During his reign, the French colonialists started the first works to establish a 60-year colonial period in Tonkin and Annam, while the Hue court showed its admiration and peace postponed. did not dare to quarrel with the French. Dong Khanh advocated acquiring French civilization, using Western goods and was once awarded the Order of the North by Boi Tinh Boi. It is for that reason that Vietnamese histories after the Nguyen era often regarded him as a reactionary king, who, for his own benefit, committed himself to being a puppet and a foreign henchman.
In early 1889, Dong Khanh was seriously ill and died when he was quite young, only reigned for 4 years, the temple was Canh Tong. His successor was Thanh Thai king.
According to Dai Nam Luc Luc and Nguyen Phuoc Toc's descendants, King Dong Khanh had six sons and three daughters. However, the royal book of the Nguyễn clan states that he had 6 boys and 6 girls, but did not specify the names of the princesses.
10. Emperor Thanh Thai: His real name was Nguyen Phuc Buu Lan, ruled the country for 19 years from 1889 to 1907.
Ưhen he ascended the throne to change to Nguyen Phuc Chieu. He was the 7th son of King Duc Duc and Mrs. Phan Thi Dieu, born on February 22, Ky Mao year, March 14, 1879 in Hue. He was the grandson of Thoai Thai Nguyen Nguyen Cardinal and great-grandson of King Thieu Tri.
When he was four years old, Emperor Duc Duc was defeated and died in prison by two courtiers, Ton That Thuyet and Nguyen Van Tuong. When he was nine years old, his grandfather, Phan Dinh Binh (a high-ranking mandarin of the Ho household) was arrested and imprisoned by Dong Khanh King, who died after scolding Dong Khanh for flattery and pro-French when Dong Khanh went to Quang Binh to entice King Ham Nghi. surrendered, so Buu Lan had to go to the capital with his mother Tu Minh, under house arrest and in need.
On January 28, 1889, the unfortunate King Dong Khanh passed away at the age of 24. At that time, Dong Khanh's son, Buu Dao, was only 3 years old, so he could not succeed the throne. Rheinart. At the Nunciature court, Mr. Diep Van Cuong was working as an interpreter. Diep Vong Cuong married Buu Lan's aunt, and also sympathized with King Duc Duc (brother-in-law), so he tried to find a way for his nephew to take the throne. He translated it to the Ambassador Rheinart in a completely different way from the Secret Institute. So Buu Lan was chosen to the throne.
11. Emperor Duy Tan: Real Name was Nguyen Phuc Vinh San. He ruled the country for 9 years from 1907 to 11916.
Duy Tan was born on September 19, 1900 - December 26, 1945), born Nguyen Phuc Vinh San, the 11th emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty, from the throne from 1907 to 1916, after King Thanh Thai.
When his father was exiled by the French colonialists, he was taken to the throne by the French when he was a child. However, he gradually asserted his noncooperation with France. In 1916, while there was a Great War in Europe, he secretly contacted the leaders of the Vietnamese Quang Phuc Association such as Thai Phien and Tran Cao Van, who planned to revolt. The attempt failed and Duy Tan was arrested on May 6 and on November 3, 1916, he was restrained on the island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean.
During World War II (1939 - 1945) he joined the Allies against the Nazis. On December 26, 1945, he died in a plane crash in the Central African Republic, aged 45 years old.
On April 24, 1987, his body was taken from Réunion to Vietnam, then taken to his burial place at Duc Duc Mausoleum, Hue next to the tomb of Thanh Thai's father. He has no sign.
12. Emperor Khai Dinh: Real Name was Nguyen Phuc Buu Dao. He ruled the country for 9 years from 1916 to 1925.
Khai Dinh was born Nguyen Phuc Buu Dao, when he ascended the throne to Nguyen Phuc Tuan, the eldest son of King Dong Khanh and his mother Duong Thi Thuc. He was born on September 1 in the year of the Rooster, ie October 8, 1885, in the imperial city of Hue.
In 1889, Dong Khanh died, Buu Dao was still young, so he was not allowed to succeed (the successor was Thanh Thai). In 1906, Buu Dao was named Phung Hoa Cong. He was a gambler, often losing, sometimes having to sell both appliances and servants. Buu Dao even arrested his wife, the daughter of high-ranking mandarin Truong Nhu Cuong, to ask for money from her parents to pay debts to gamble.
The Buu Dao crowning was not completely smooth. After accusing the Emperor Duy Tan, the French had wanted to abolish the monarchy in Vietnam but the courtiers, especially the high-ranking Nguyen Huu Bai refused, so France had to give in. On May 18, 1916, Buu Dao ascended the throne to take the reign as Khai Dinh.
13. Emperor Bao Dai: Real Name was Nguyen Phuc Vinh Thuy. He ruled the country for 20 years from 1925 to 1945.
Bao Dai was born October 22, 1913 - July 31, 1997, born Nguyen Phuc Vinh Thuy, the 13th emperor and the last king of the Nguyen Dynasty, also the last emperor of Monarchy in Vietnamese history.
Since Bao Dai was only his chronicle, the Nguyen custom of the emperors kept only one chronology so that folk used it to refer to that emperor. He was also the Emperor of the Vietnamese Empire (1945) and the Head of State of Vietnam (1949 - 1955).
Like his father, Khai Dinh, Bao Dai was judged to be a king only giddy, gambling. Bao Dai was even more heavily condemned for cooperating with the French colonialists against the resistance movement of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Emperor Bao Dai had 8 wives and 12 children: 5 princes and 7 princesses.
Discover 7 Hue Royal Tombs of the Nguyen Emperors:
- Tomb of Emperor Gia Long
- Tomb of Emperor Minh Mang
- Tomb of Emperor Thieu Tri
- Tomb of Emperor Tu Duc
- Tomb of Emperor Duc Duc
- Tomb of Emperor Dong Khanh
- Tomb of Emperor Khai Dinh
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